As the weather gets colder, illnesses start appearing including RSV. It's a common illness among infants and the elderly but for some can be very serious and require hospitalization.
The frustrating thing about RSV and a lot of these respiratory viruses is there's no effective treatment to kill it or shorten the course Dr. Jeremy Granger is a pediatrician with UnityPoint Health. "Even without knowing for sure that it's RSV. The things to look out for are the same things you would look for in general with any respiratory virus, primarily, difficulty breathing, rapid breathing, labored breathing, and signs of dehydration."
Dr. Granger has been seeing a rise in cases of RSV in Siouxland over the last few weeks. "About two weeks ago, it seemed to really pick up for us," he said. "September we saw a lot of just regular respiratory viruses and hand, foot and mouth. And then the last two to three weeks we're seeing RSV, influenza, Rhinovirus which is kind of always around. And then for the last two weeks a lot of para-influenza virus and adenovirus."
Dr. Granger says most babies with RSV can be treated at home with nasal saline, suction, and Tylenol. Some infants might do well with a nebulizer or a breathing treatment, but that's not the case for all.
"Sometimes we will use breathing treatments, but not all children need breathing treatments and in fact, sometimes it can make it worse," Dr. Granger said. "So if your kid is breathing comfortably, even if they have a little bit of wheeze, many times we will not do any medicine because you know, we first want to do no harm."
"When we see children in clinic, we're making sure that they're breathing comfortably and that their oxygen is good," he continued, "but we don't routinely order x-rays. And those are national guidelines that come from national studies that have been done."
For babies with a fever, Dr. Granger says sometimes a high and fluctuating fever is a good sign.
"Fevers can make you feel uncomfortable. It will make your breathing hard and heavy and make your heart beat fast, but it's also a way that our body uses antibodies to kill off viruses," he said. "But if your child's 101-1-2 and they don't seem in much discomfort, you can let them simmer at that temperature. The body will bring that temperature back down and they'll cycle up and down every few hours. And that's the nature of fever. And that's not necessarily a bad thing. It's kind of like Last Man Standing. Our cells can tolerate temps around 106 without damage and viral particles start to kind of break down the protein at higher temps."
But if the fever does get too high, it's best to see a doctor. "If they have a fever, and they're uncomfortable, treat it. If they're over 104-105, they probably need to be seen."
When it comes to nighttime care, have your child sleep on their back, or even in your arms, because nights can be scariest for parents. "So nighttime is the worst and generally days 3-5 are going to be your worst nights with RSV. So if you've made it past those nights, you're usually on the downhill slide."
During the winter months, it's also not uncommon for kids to have several viruses at one time. 'And it's not uncommon to find them positive for three to five viruses all at the same time," said Dr. Granger. "We call it viral stalking. You just get one illness after another."
Dr. Granger says RSV is so common, it's almost impossible to avoid. "With RSV, you're probably not going to avoid it. Everybody gets it at some point and adults can get it too."
"If you've had a cold through the winter, you probably had it so I wouldn't let the name scare anyone too much. Just pay attention to the symptoms and the child in front of you. And if your guts telling you it doesn't look right, bring them in and we'll take care of her from there. But everybody under the age of two gets RSV at least once so even if you don't know that your child had it, they probably did at least once through the winter."
Those who have RSV, even if they don't know it, can still shed the virus from 8 days to three weeks which makes this virus so contagious for everyone from infants to adults.
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Breast Cancer Awareness: The importance of monthly self-checks
The month of October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month and while it's a great time to shine a light on the women who are fighting, have fought, and who have lost the battle to breast cancer, it's also a time to highlight the importance of prevention.
Katie Couric is a familiar face to many. She woke Americans up every morning on NBC's TODAY Show from 1991 to 2996, became the first woman to anchor the CBS Evening News in 2006, and has been a longtime advocate for cancer research after losing her first husband to colon cancer. On September 28th, 2022, Couric announced her own health battle, with breast cancer.
"It was June 20th and because of the pandemic, I was 6 months overdue for a mammogram." Couric was just like many other women across the U.S. and put off her yearly mammogram. When she went in for her appointment in June, she took the camera with her to document the journey, much like she did in 2000 when she got a colonoscopy on the TODAY Show. But that appointment quickly took a turn when doctors found a concerning spot on her mammogram and ultrasound.
"I had a wire put in my boob, which is basically providing guidance for the surgeon because I have a little lump situation," Couric said in the video she posted on her Instagram page sharing she had been diagnosed with HR-positive, Her2neu-negative breast cancer on June 21st.
Women over the age of 40 are encouraged to get a yearly mammogram and because of COVID, many have put off this lifesaving screening, and for some, they haven't had a mammogram since the start of the pandemic. This is why medical providers are highlighting the importance of monthly self-checks at home.
"You're going to know before anybody else." Jeanne Rasmussen is an ARNP with UnityPoint Clinics and says these monthly self-checks can be quick and easy, and the first sign that something could be wrong.
"Boobs are like bags of rice and you're looking for a pee in there," she said of the checks It's also important to remember that breast tissue can be located up into the armpit.
It isn't just adults who should be doing self-checks, but teens as well, because getting familiar with your body and its ebbs and flows are an important part of your health.
"As soon as you start getting your period you're going to have breast changes or hormones. Even when you're pregnant. All of those things stress can cause changes," Rasmussen said. "And just to be aware of those and if you find something, that's concerning them to let us know."
Dr. Adnon Qualbani is a radiologist at MercyOne's Breast Care Clinic and says spending a few minutes on each side is all it takes.
"I think it's important to conduct the self-exams kind of the right way. Check up into your axilla as well. Some women have accessory breast tissue that hides up there," he said. "You want to move a motion from the outside and in toward the nipple, kind of like spokes on a wheel."
"We always check for any dimpling of the skin, like if it looks like an orange peel. That's something that you want to let your doctor know about," Rasmussen said. "If you have any redness, any soreness, any pain."
The best time to do these self-checks is 7-10 days into your menstrual cycle.
"If you check your breasts before you have your cycle, you're going to feel a lot more lumps and pain and so forth," said Dr. Qualbani. "If you do it a day seven to day 10, meaning the day your period starts you call that day 1, seven to 10 days out there's a window where your breasts are the most sort of calm and less lumpy, less painful. That's the right time to check."
Dr. Qualbani says if you find something unusual during these monthly checks, it is perfectly okay to wait a month to see if anything changes before you call your doctor.
If you do feel something it's perfectly okay to wait one menstrual cycle and then check again and see if it changes," he said. "If you check it every day or every week you'll go nuts wondering if that thing is real or is it changing?"
As for when a woman should start getting yearly mammograms, the recommended age is once you turn 40, but there are some stipulations. If there is a history of breast cancer in your immediate family, like a mother or sister, yearly mammograms should begin 10 prior to their diagnosis age. So if your mother was diagnosed at age 42, you'd begin yearly screenings at age 32.
At the end of the day, these medical providers say, you know your body best. If you feel something is wrong or concerning, call your primary care provider and get it checked out.
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Breast Cancer Awareness: A Siouxland woman's journey from mammography tech to patient
"I came in happy-go-lucky to see my own colleagues and have plans to have lunch with them and left thinking what's going to happen next?"
Andrea Roost turned 40 in January. in May.. she returned to MercyOne's Breast Care Center where she worked as a mammography tech for 12 years to get her first mammogram. It would also happen to be the last routine mammogram that she'd need.
Roost was diagnosed with breast cancer on May 5th. She did everything she was supposed to: self-examinations, conversations with her primary care doctor, and a mammogram at 40. Nothing led her to believe breast cancer was in her future until it was.
"I am the reason this is why we start screening at 40," she said, "because the cancer that I have would have killed me if I would have waited until 45. Or even 50."
Roost is grateful to have the team at MercyOne's Breast Care Center next to her through this journey, something these women do for all who walk through their doors, and a team she was part of for more than a decade.
"The heart behind every staff member in this office is 100% pure," she said. "They understand what these patients are going through. And they kind of change and flow with that patient with their needs."
For women needing a mammogram, the fear and anxiety of what the scans may show is real and something those in the breast cancer community calls scanxiety.
"It's in reference to the anxiety that you have before, during and after your scans, whether it's you know, engaging in chemo response or your follow-up," Roost said. "I think that's really relevant in the screening and diagnostic world as well. I counseled people on this when I was an active technologist."
Once holding the hand of those coming to the clinic, she is now leaning on her former colleagues to guide her through her own journey with breast cancer.
"It's okay to be scared. That's why we're here is to get you through that to talk you through that," Roost said. "The unknown is scary, but ignorance is worse. That's the best way I can put it."
Roost's cancer journey is just beginning but she hopes that sharing her story can shine a light on the importance of breast care.
"I still have a rough road ahead of me. I've finished chemo. I've had one surgery to remove the tumor and my lymph nodes. I still have a bilateral full mastectomy to do. So it's the worst is yet to come," she explained. "But I'll be looking back on this in a year and be smiling in here to continue to tell my journey."
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Breast Cancer Awareness: Breast Care Coordinators bring unique care to Midlands clinic
Receiving the news that you have breast cancer is shocking leaving most wondering, what do I do next? At Midlands Clinic in Dakota Dunes, they have a pair of dedicated women whose job is to help women through their breast cancer journey.
"I would say the unique part about our offices, the coordinators, and the role they play in navigating care for those women from start to finish," said Dr. Craig Nemechek, a general surgeon at Midlands Clinic.
"We just help patients navigate through their journey," Nicole Trudeau is one of the Breast Care Coordinators at Midlands Clinic. She and Sophia Summervold play a key role in helping women navigate their new reality.
"We basically start the process of getting them post-diagnosis, getting everything lined up so that they can go through the next process or next part of the process," said Summervold. "They have so many different doctors that they're seeing. They don't know who to call, what do I do next? Who do I call? What's the next step? So we kind of take that and we do all of that in the background so that they don't have to worry about that."
They help women through the emotional journey the diagnosis brings, too.
"It's a big diagnosis, people are overwhelmed," Trudeau said. "It's a lot of terminologies that they don't know. It's a lot of tests that they've never had done before."
Trudeau and Summervold carry a cell phone, one that their breast cancer patients have a direct line to. "They can call a direct number instead of kind of going through the rigmarole of going through the office. So they can call us directly or text so we can talk to them directly and answer their specific questions," said Trudeau.
"Women are very different in how they react to that news," said Nemechek about the diagnosis, "and I think the nice part is that with our coordinators, they've seen all types of different reactions and they know very well how to handle those emotions."
"Everybody's breast cancer is completely different. So it's hard because some people know so and so who had it but they can't always rely on what that person had because it's very different for everybody," said Summervold.
"I just think it's important for people in Siouxland to know that there is a strong support system at many of our medical facilities dealing with breast cancer, not only as their physician but there's also other support staff who can help everyone through their journey," said Trudeau.
And for the month of October, their biggest message is this.
"Do your monthly screenings no matter what age you are," said Summervold, "and then also working with your primary care doctor to make sure you're getting your screenings is super important. Because the sooner that you can get that diagnosis, the sooner you can kind of get through it."
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Breast Cancer Awareness: June E. Nylen Cancer Center at forefront of treatment advancement
The treatment for breast cancer has changed a lot over the years, and a Sioux City medical center has played a key role in that development.
"We have actually been involved in trials that have actually changed how we treat breast cancer patients," Dr. Donald Wender, a physician at the June E. Nylen Cancer Center in Downtown Sioux City, has been one of the doctors on the leading edge of those advancements.
"There's a study looking at a test that who we should give chemotherapy or who doesn't need chemotherapy," said Dr. Wender. There's been a shift in treating certain types of breast cancer which have also led to a common misconception. "We're using less chemotherapy after surgery, so a lot of people think they are going to get chemotherapy and they don't."
Instead, thanks to clinical trials and medical advancements over the last several years, many types of breast cancers are being treated with more immunotherapies and fewer chemotherapies."
"And in the most recent advance in there as with immunotherapy," said Dr. Wender, "we know that there's with chemotherapy and immunotherapy we can get another a lot of them to get a complete response with chemotherapy before surgery."
Dr. Wender has been working with breast cancer patients throughout his career and involved in some major advancements in breast care. In fact, the way we standardly treat breast cancer patients we were involved in most of those trials.
According to the State Health Registry of Iowa, over 14% of all new cancer diagnoses in Iowa this year are projected to be breast cancer, the largest percentage for any type of cancer statewide. Sioux City is the lowest metropolitan area in Iowa with women age 40 and up who have skipped getting a yearly mammogram. And looking at data from a 12-year study from 2004 to 2015, the risk of developing late-stage breast cancer is higher in the Sioux City area compared to the 12-year state average. Which is why these new therapies and clinical trials are important.
The June E Nylen Cancer Center has played a big part in the advancement of breast cancer treatment and while there aren't as many clinical trials as in the past, Dr. Wender says the ones that are available, are working to answer the even harder questions.
"There are not as many trials but there are a bunch of trials looking at new approaches. And then, of course, we try to add immunotherapy," Dr. Wender said. "The clinical trials have slowed down. Before we had a lot of big questions that needed answered, you know, do you give chemotherapy, what chemotherapy do you give? Now we're trying to refine them down to new agents looking at things in metastatic disease."
The treatment for breast cancer has come a long way and the standard of care is constantly evolving. Thanks to the dedicated work of physicians like Dr. Wender and the team at the June E. Nylen Cancer Center.
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Breast Cancer Awareness: Breast cancer doesn't end when the pink ribbons come down
As the month of October of comes to an end and the pink ribbons come down, it's a good moment to remember what they stand for: our mothers, daughters, sisters and friends fighting breast cancer.
"I also think it's a good month to remember the women that have done that had been through a battle with breast cancer or other breast ailment or disease and kind of remember those women as well and what they've gone through," said general surgeon, Dr. Craig Nemechek with Midlands Clinic.
Siouxland has a vast array of resources for women from breast cancer prevention to treatment to post-cancer care.
"I just think it's important for people in Siouxland to know that there is a strong support system at many of our medical facilities dealing with breast cancer," said Nicole Trudeau, a breast care coordinator at Midlands Clinic, "not only as their physicians, but there's also other support staff who can help everyone through their journey."
"We try to provide support, we try to answer questions as best we can. We try to give women a path, some knowledge that tries to ease their concerns," said Dr. Nemechek. "We can't obviously answer every question, but I think and I hope that women after that first visit have a better bit better understanding of what they're going to go through and what they can expect, and hopefully that can ease their mind."
One of the biggest pushes during the month of October is the importance of yearly mammograms for women beginning at age 40, or for some, sooner.
"Typically we start at age 40 unless there's a first-degree relative, that would be like your mother or sister," said Jeanne Rasmussen, an ARNP with UnityPoint Clinics. "And they begin having their (yearly mammogram) done 10 years prior to when they had breast cancer. So if Mom was 42 when she got diagnosed, at age 32 you would start getting screening mammograms."
Many women skip their yearly mammograms, and that is especially true after the COVID-19 pandemic.
"Some people, I think just kind of put it off because they're scared, but I think it's important to kind of face that fear because not everybody ends up having breast cancer," said Sophie Summervold, another breast care coordinator at Midlands Clinic, "but if you have a lump or a bump, it's important to address that with your primary care doctor or ask for that referral. Kind of be your own advocate to move on to the next step to see if you do need to be concerned."
There is also one piece of preventative care women of all ages can do right at home each month: self-checks.
"Get to know what your breast feels like, what your normal lumpiness feels like, what your cyclical changes feel like, and then you'll know if there's a change therein," said Dr. Adnan Qualbani, a radiologist at MercyOne's Breast Care Center. "There are all these things available for dealing with lumps that are even benign and sometimes just even getting a benign lump assessed to see what it is and then you know it's benign. It doesn't have to always be a suspicious lump you want to be checked, anything that bothers you is worth getting checked."
And if you feel something concerning it never hurts to get it checked out.
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You've heard their voices on the local air waves for years and now two radio personalities are being inducted into the "Midwest All Music Association Hall of Fame."
He's a big voice on the local airwaves playing the country hits we know and love, and now Y Country 101.3's Cowboy Bob will be the newest member of the Midwest All Music Association Hall of Fame.
"I never thought something like this was going to happen. I really didn't. And I'm really tickled that it's happening," Cowboy Bob Rounds said before his regular morning show on Y Country.
The Midwest All Music Association, or MAMA, began just a few years ago honoring those making an impact across all musical genres.
"I'm so excited that my broadcasting compadres Cowboy Bob could be put into this category because there's a guy that deserves it," Another big voice just down the hall from Y Country is Big Daddy on Classic Rock 99.5.
"Sioux City is so rich in music history and all types of musical formats. It's a pleasure to live in this area," Denny "Big Daddy" Anderson said as he let us into the Classic Rock studio during his popular morning show Thursday.
Big Daddy was inducted into the Iowa Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2020. He is also being inducted into the Midwest All Music Association Hall of Fame on Saturday. There are a lot of talented and longtime personalities on the air at Powell Broadcasting, the parent company for Y Country, Classic Rock 99.5 and several other stations, but General Manager Denny Bullock says it best.
"Cowboy Bob is 101.3. Big Daddy is 99.5," Bullock said, "when we can be live and local in the in the community. That's what it's all about this is reflective of that."
"I think that every day that I come to work, I build a new memory and that kind of stuff," Cowboy Bob said, "there's no looking back at some real big monumental deal. It's just every day, you get to meet the people."
For Cowboy Bob, it's about the people he has met throughout his time on the air waves.
"They'll come out to see us at a remote. No say, Oh, it was really neat to put a face to the voice. And I'll say Well, it's nice to meet you," he said. "I do really like meeting the people around what we call Y Country, the Siouxland area. So just every day is kind of a great memory."
The Midwest All Music Association Hall of Fame induction will take place Saturday night at the Avalon Ballroom in Remsen, Iowa. Tickets are $20 at the door with proceeds staying here in Siouxland to help grow local music education.
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The month of September is Childhood Cancer Awareness Month but for families with a little one battling cancer, their fight isn't just for four weeks, but years.
"I ask people to take a second and just think about what it would be like to be sitting in an oncologist's office with your spouse waiting for a diagnosis, but that diagnosis isn't for you. It's for your four-year-old child," said Kay Koehler, President and CEO of CureSearch, a national organization with a mission to find a cure for childhood cancer.
While childhood cancer is rare, it is a harsh reality for many parents, including a Sgt. Bluff family whose young daughter is battling acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
"There are so many things that come with getting a diagnosis that your child has cancer," said Erin Edlund. We met the Edlund family, including their youngest Lolo who is in the midst of her cancer treatment, in the summer of 2021. Lolo's cancer journey brought her to Omaha's Children's Hospital, one of the few medical centers in the region that specializes in treating childhood cancer and other illnesses.
When a child is impacted by cancer, that impacts the next the 70-80-90 years of their life," said Dr. Acquazzino. "There's just so much potential." Dr. Melissa Acquazzino and Dr. Jill Beck are two of the leading oncologists at Children's Hospital and have seen firsthand how current cancer treatments can ravage a young child's body.
Learn more about Children's Hospital of Omaha here.
"Oftentimes cancer in childhood is very aggressive and we use very intensive treatments to get them into remission and cure," said Dr. Aquazzino.
PART 1: Meet a Sgt. Bluff Family in the middle of the cancer fight, and some of the doctors who are on the leading edge of new treatments.
While treatments are advancing, those advancements are not happening fast enough. "We have made strides in terms of treatment and successes in curing," said Dr. Beck, "but it is still the highest cause of death by disease in children."
"Most people think about cancer research as cancer research and that adult cancer, probably those drugs are just applied to children and it doesn't work that way for many reasons," said Koehler. "(We focus) on driving new drug development for kids with cancer and we want those therapies to be less toxic than the current standard of treatment."
Childhood Cancer is different from adult diagnosis because children's bodies are still growing. While childhood cancer is considered rare, the treatments made specifically for their little bodies are even more so.
"You put chemotherapy treatment into a body that's four years old and growing," said Edlund, "that's a pretty terrifying prospect that you don't know what really effect that's going to have and for every kid, it's going to be different because we all grow at different rates."
"If your six-month-old is diagnosed with cancer, they can't take a pill," said Koehler. "How are you going to give them therapy, right? It's everything from the logistics to the treatments themselves."
CureSearch brings new treatments into clinical trials, from lab development to treatment deployment.
PART 2: Lack of funding stalls important advancements in treatment
"I think one of the challenges is that the treatments that we're using are still old and they have a lot of side effects," said Dr. Beck. "I think we are behind, in terms of pediatric cancer the average is about six years after a medication or a treatment is introduced in adults. That it is then introduced in kids."
Children's Hospital works with several clinical trials thanks to organizations like CureSearch and hospitals across the nation, with a shared goal of finding treatments, and a possible cure, for kids fighting these diseases. One of the biggest hurdles they face is finding the funding needed to get the research up and off the ground.
"In pediatric cancer research, we receive a very small percentage of the money that's out there that goes towards cancer research," said Dr. Acquazzino. "The majority goes to the adult world."
CureSearch is funded solely from donations and fundraisers and doesn't receive any federal assistance. Koehler says they are strict in where they put their resources. Each research study goes through a rigorous cycle before CureSearch puts funding behind it to get it to the clinical trial stage. They have a success rate of 60%.
"It costs about $800 million I've been told to bring a drug to market," said Koehler, "so we are solely dependent on donors who are interested in making an impact with their investment in childhood cancer."
Find out more about CureSearch here.
For the team at Omaha Children's Hospital, finding the right treatment and even a cure isn't their only goal. "What we're really working to do is kind of all sides of it," said Dr. Beck. "So decrease trying to figure out why kids get cancer and decreasing that, and then also working on the other side to get better, more effective treatments that have fewer side effects so that these kids can grow up to be happy healthy adults."
"Because pediatric cancer is rare, we band together and we work with the children's hospitals around the country to standardize how we treat kids with certain diagnoses," said Dr. Acquazzino, "and then to ask questions about how we can improve treatment both in terms of improving cure rates, but also in decreasing those long term late effects that we can see from our cancer treatment."
CureSearch not only wants to find the cure for cancer and develop treatments that aren't going to cause these kids more health problems down the road, leaving parents constantly looking over their shoulders wondering when the next shoe will drop.
"For us, it's about how do we move things along faster? How do we help children lead long and healthy lives when we're talking about an additional 60-70 years of life left for them?" said Koehler. 'We need to not just "cure" children and I use the word "cure" in quotes. We need to ensure that they don't have to look over their shoulders for the rest of their life wondering if they're going to have congestive heart failure at 23 years old. That's what we're focused on."
Children's works to get their patients into the best clinical trials possible, but they also strive to make the journey through a cancer diagnosis and treatment as easy as possible for the child and their family. For families of kids diagnosed with cancer, that diagnosis impacts everyone in different ways, from the parents to their siblings. This is why, at Children's, they take a team approach to treatment.
"I think one of the things with pediatric cancer, in general, is it really is a team sport and that that there is no one person in our group that can do this alone, other than the patient but that we're all here to support those kids," said Dr. Beck.
Dr. Acquazzino agreed, "We have a really big team of people that think about our patients head to toe and how we can support not only them but their families." A cancer diagnosis can often be hardest on the parents, both mentally and emotionally, seeing their child go through tough treatments and long stays in the hospital.
"I find that parents often don't know how to sort of trust their parenting anymore," said Dr. Beck, "not for any fault of their own. But because it's unexpected and it's rare and it's not on your radar until it's right there and happening to you."
"When I think a lot of what parents tell me is the club that they never imagined that they want to be in and that they would prefer not to have been a member of." That club is the reality for far too many families and the news that your child has cancer is just the beginning of an incredibly long journey," which the Edlund's are right in the middle of.
"While my daughter's hair is growing back and while we have gotten through probably the hardest part of her treatment, we are still in the midst of treatment," Edlund said. "Today is day 505 And we have 311 days to go. Her end date is August 6, 2023. We are not even close to being done with this journey. We will always live with the fear that she could face relapse.
"We will always live with the fear that the treatment may have caused her to have other underlying health conditions. And that's an enormous burden as well."
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The fight over CO2 pipelines in Iowa continued Tuesday night, Oct. 4th at Briar Cliff University, with a proposed solution.
Prairies Not Pipelines was a community discussion over transforming parts of Iowa land back to the native prairie it once was and bringing natural carbon capture to the forefront.
Tuesday night's discussion included the benefits of reintroducing native prairies, as well as issues that urban, migrant and indigenous communities would face should these proposed pipelines become reality.
"Prairies, if they are healthy, sequester so much of the carbon down in the soils, unlike forests out west that are burning all the time," said speaker and Professor of Biology and Environmental Science at Briar Cliff University David Hoferer. "The problem with that is then the carbon of the tress is going right back into the air. But, prairies sequester down into their roots and then exchange the carbon with the microbes in the soil so it all stays in the soil."
This proposal looks to make wetlands and steep slopes in Iowa into prairie land, not removing farmland.
For the indigenous communities, pipeline creation is harmful on a sacred level.
"For us, the sacred spaces don't just exist on one plane. They go to the center of the earth all the way out to the universe," said Sikowis Nobiss, Executive Director of the Great Plains Action Society. "Those are smart stories that can be applied today, because they have no idea what is going to happen when they put this into the ground. There is very little data available about what is going to happen."
Web articles from my time at Siouxland News.